Because they took ages to start, they needed a lot of maintenance, and they were ‘difficult’ to drive, — as machines they are gorgeous, truly magnificent engineering creations which hearten everyone who sees them. But as ‘practical machines’ for a railway system they are non-starters.
To get 60 tons of water (c.5,000 Gallons) from cold to boiling before you can even move; to get ‘a head of steam’ ready for an upcoming hill — then ‘avoid a surplus’ going down the other side; raking out the fires and dropping the ash / cinder each night —
“The scales fall from your eyes” (or more accurately the rose-tinted spectacles fall) when you see one of the last large steam locos which were oil-fired (the power output of a steam loco is limited by how much fuel you can get into the firebox and men could not shovel coal fast enough for big machines).
So you have the anomaly of a steam loco burning oil in a firebox to create steam to drive the pistons — instead of just injecting the oil into a diesel engine and getting a much more efficient ‘engine’ which produces ‘power on demand’ — with no start-up time, no shut-down time, with instant power for the hills, and shut back for the descent — all almost fully automatically.
We don’t have steam trains now for the same reason we don’t have steam Lorries or steam cars – they are lovely but not very practical. Here are some examples of Britain’s best steam locomotives:
I. The No.4472 Flying Scotsman: A London and North Eastern Railway LNER Class A3 (1922-35) British 4-6-2 “Pacific” steam locomotive designed by Nigel Gresley. It was built in 1923 at Doncaster Works. It reached 100 mph in 1934. It is without doubt the world’s most famous express locomotive known for going non-stop from London to Edinburgh on a regular run.
II. The Great Western Railway Collett 4073 Castle Class 4-6-0 “Ten-wheeler” locomotives: The Castles were designed for express passenger trains by Charles Collett, Chief Mechanical Engineer. The 4073 Castle Class locomotives (Caerphilly Castle was No.4073), a group of 171 locomotives, were introduced from 1923. On 6 June 1932 No.5006 “Tregenna Castle” was the fastest “Cheltenham Flyer” over 77¼ miles from Swindon to London in 56 minutes 47 seconds, averaging a speed of 81.6 mph, which was very, very fast for 1932! No.5043 “Earl of Mount Edgcumbe” was built in 1936, and was given a double chimney and a 4 row superheater.
III. The GWR 6000 King Class 4-6-0 “Ten-wheeler” locomotives: 31 were built from 1927. This ‘Super-Castle’ Class was also designed by Charles B. Collett, as an enlarged version of his Castles (which in turn were an enlargement of George Jackson Churchward’s Star Class). The new design was in response to having the title of the ‘most powerful express passenger steam locomotive in Britain’ taken away from the Great Western Railway’s Castles in 1926 by the Southern Railway’s Lord Nelson Class. William Stanier based his LMS Princess Royal Class design on the King Class, but with an enlarged boiler and firebox necessitating a 4-6-2 wheel arrangement. Four-row superheaters were fitted to the Kings, and double blast-pipes and chimneys were fitted. British Railways saw the very best of their performance, particularly on the steep South Devon banks at Dainton, Rattery, and Hemerdon.
IV. The LMS Princess Royal Class British 4-6-2 “Pacific” steam locomotive designed by William Stanier. Built in 1933 at Crewe. They were used to haul the Royal Scot train between London Euston and Glasgow Central. On the 3 May 1936 No.46203 Princess Margaret Rose attained the Class speed record of 102.5 mph. Later examples of 4-6-2 express passenger locomotive built by the London Midland and Scottish Railway were of the related but larger, Coronation Class.
V. The Black Five 4-6-0 LMS Stanier Class 5: Black Five — Stanier Class 5MT No.45407. The “Ten-wheelers” were introduced by William Stanier in 1934. By 1951, 842 were built. Many members of the class survived to the last day of steam on British Railways in 1968, and eighteen are preserved. The Lancashire Fusilier (No.45407) was built in 1937 by Armstrong Whitworth.
VI. The LNER V2-Class 4771 “Green Arrow” 2-6-2 “Prairie/Tender”: The story of No.60800 “Green Arrow” (built 1936) is her heroic attempts to become the first V2-Class locomotive to reach Plymouth, particularly on the infamous Devon banks. Designed by Sir Nigel Gresley for express mixed traffic work with 184 built 1936-44.
VII. The No.6229 Duchess of Hamilton (National Railway Museum, York): Is a London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) Princess Coronation Class British 4-6-2 “Pacific” streamlined steam locomotive designed by William Stanier. Built in 1937 at Crewe they were a larger version of the Princess Royal Class — and holds the honour of being the most powerful steam engine ever built to pull trains on Britain’s railways. No.6220 ‘Coronation’ reached a record speed of 114 mph in 1937. Three Princess Coronation’s survive: Duchess of Hamilton, Duchess of Sutherland and the City of Birmingham.
VIII. The No.4468 Mallard: A London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Class A4 British 4-6-2 “Pacific” steam locomotive designed by Nigel Gresley. Built at the Doncaster Works in 1938. It became the holder of the steam speed record of 126 mph in 1938. The world’s fastest steam locomotive continues to steam triumphantly on into the Millennium.
IX. The Great Western Railway Collett 7800 Manor Class 4-6-0 “Ten-wheeler” locomotives: These “Manors” were designed for express passenger trains by Charles Collett, Chief Mechanical Engineer. Like the “Granges”, the “Manors” used parts from the GWR 4300 Class “Moguls” (2-6-0), but just on the first batch of 20. These Twenty were built between 1938 and 1939, with British Railways adding yet another 10 in 1950.
X. The Southern Railway Clan Line, 21C1, “Merchant Navy” Class 4-6-2 (Pacific) locomotives: The first members of the Oliver Bulleid class were constructed during the Second World War from 1941, and the last of the 30 locomotives in 1949; No.35028 was built at Eastleigh Works in 1948. The Bulleid Pacific No.35028 “Clan Line” was saved from destruction in the 1960s.
XI. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Class B1 British 4-6-0 “Ten-wheeler” steam locomotives: The LNER B1’s were was designed by Edward Thompson and introduced in 1942. The No.61306 Mayflower B1 was built by North British Locomotive Company in 1948. They were the LNER’s equivalent to the highly successful GWR “Hall Class” and the LMS Stanier “Black Five”, two-cylinder mixed traffic 4-6-0s. The Mayflower is now based at the North Norfolk Railway.
Have you ever wondered what would happen if YOU could run a Nation State exactly the way you wanted? I have, and I also wondered what would happen if it was run the way the Bible recommends, but today, NOW?
exempli gratia, a State run as a Theocracy in direct contrast to all the competing types and styles of governments in existence today including all those existing so called theocracies.
Well I have been running my own simulated Nation State as an experiment since Friday November 30th, 2012 (today being 30.10.2014 that’s 699 days or 1 year 334 days ago); and I did it on a website called NationStates created by Max Barry, author of the books Lexicon, Jennifer Government, Syrup, Company, and Machine Man.
this is the website http://www.nationstates.net/ The site was set up Max Barry to advertise his books.
NationStates is a free nation simulation game. You create your own country, fashioned after your own ideals, and care for its people.
NationStates is based on the novel “Jennifer Government” by Max Barry. The book is set in an ultra-privatised world (sound familiar?), of the sort you can create yourself in NationStates.
He (Max Barry) did this as a way to let people know about this novel “Jennifer Government”.
Hoping that some of the people who play NationStates would then go on and buy the book.
So first of all you start by choosing a name, a motto, a national animal, and a currency for your nation. Then you answer a short questionnaire about your politics, which will determine whether your nation is authoritarian or libertarian… conservative or liberal… compassionate or psychotic… you get the idea.
Once you have created a nation, there are four main areas on the site that concern you:
Issues, Regions, the World Assembly, and Forums.
There is no way to win this game, as such, but what is “winning” anyway, grasshopper? The Issues you have to deal with are provided by the game for you to address. How you address them directly affects how your Nation takes shape.
Your Nation is then graded against other countries against various world indicators. You can decide if the measure is where you want your Nation State to be, but you are powerless to change the rankings. They are set by your previous decisions, which you cannot alter.
Which is better, a left-wing civil rights paradise with no money, or a right-wing economic powerhouse where the poor are left to fend for themselves? Or a Theocracy based on the Bible?
One way to succeed, at least in a sense, is to make it onto the top rungs of a World Assembly report. These are compiled once per day, one for each Region and one for the entire world. Nations are ranked on anything from economic strength to the most liberal laws.
Part of the game is that it changes the category or type of government based on the decisions made on the issues presented. But I decided from the outset to use the Bible as my guide. This made my government into a Theocracy.
So I called my Nation State The Theocracy of The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia on the header; although the actual name is “The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia”!
Not very imaginative I know. This is purely because I wanted to keep an unchangeable source for my decisions clearly visible in the nations title name and intention.
I chose “Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei – Seek First God’s Kingdom” as the motto, and
I chose “Colonia Victricensis – City of Victory” for the capital city.
So how has Max Barry’s simulation rated The Theocracy since Friday 30th November 2012?
As of today (30/10/14) the computer-generated front page reports the following:
The Theocracy of “The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia” Government
The Theocracy of The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia is a massive, cultured genial nation, remarkable for its national health service, and renowned for its keen interest in outer space. The compassionate, intelligent population of 2.327 billion Britannians love a good election, and the government gives them plenty of them. Universities tend to be full of students debating the merits of various civil and political rights, while businesses are tightly regulated and the wealthy viewed with suspicion.
It is difficult to tell where the omnipresent, socially-minded government stops and the rest of society begins, but it juggles the competing demands of Healthcare, Education, and Defence. It meets every day to discuss matters of state in the capital city of Colonia Victricensis – City of Victory. The average income tax rate is 60%, and even higher for the wealthy. A small private sector is led by the Tourism industry, followed by Furniture Restoration and Cheese Exports.
People reciting Shakespeare have become a common sight, loans are available for students from poor families, the welfare administration’s new sweeping authority has forced the poor and needy to shop from pre-approved grocery lists, and the government is pouring money into ‘Operation Enduring Democracy’. Crime is totally unknown, thanks to the all-pervasive police force and progressive social policies in education and welfare. The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia’s national animal is the Lion, and its currency is the Pound.
12 hours ago: Following new legislation in The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia, the government is pouring money into ‘Operation Enduring Democracy’.
12 hours ago: Following new legislation in The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia, the welfare administration’s new sweeping authority has forced the poor and needy to shop from pre-approved grocery lists.
12 hours ago: Following new legislation in The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia, loans are available for students from poor families.
235 days ago: Following new legislation in The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia, people reciting Shakespeare have become a common sight.
235 days ago: Following new legislation in The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia, children are brainwashed at a young age to accept “Love and peace!” as a way of life.
The various Tabs and Menus provide the following details:
Liberal Democratic Socialists
24 Very Hot – World Average = 4
979 Above Average – World Average = 904
Influence in World:
1 Low – World Average (Median) = 10
2.327 billion – World Average = 1.078 billion
37 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 17
7/7.5 Excellent National Health Service
-170 Very Low – World Average (Median) = -67
Recreational Drug Use:
9 Very Very Low – World Average (Median) = 62
14/15 Excellent Many Living 100+
Leading Causes of Death:
Old Age: 97.1% – Acts of God: 2.9%
Unexpected Death Rate:
-14 Very Low – Excellent National Health Service
6 Low – World Average (Median) = 20
Freedom From Corruption:
-6 Excellent – World Average (Median) = -20
0.36 – World Average = 0.322
52 Average – World Average = 50
55/100 Average – World Average = 50/100
-6 Politically Engaged – World Average = 0
73/100 Excellent – World Average = 49/100
16 Engaged Community – World Average (Median) = 17
5 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 0
20 Good – World Average (Median) = 25
9 Very Low – World Average (Median) = 15
8 Very High – World Average (Median) = 0
10/11 Excellent – Very High Satisfaction
14 Excellent – World Average (Median) = -1
23/26 Excellent – State Education to University
22 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 7
-25.099 Very Very Low – World Average (Median) = -9.7
Human Development Index:
50 Good – World Average (Median) = 54, (High Income Tax)
-41 Low – World Average (Median) = -50
108 Low & Partial – World Average (Median) = 126
-1.5 – World Average (Median) = -2.5
15 Very Good – World Average (Median) = 12
1.5 Poor – World Average (Median) = 37.25
9.5 Poor – World Average (Median) = 37.5
14 Large Efficient & Pervasive
25 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 12
121.6 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 92.4
-11 Low – World Average (Median) = 5
Safety From Crime:
25 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 21
26 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 22
32 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 18
29 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 16
Healthcare: 16.3% – Education: 15.6% – Defence: 12.8% – Social Policy: 10.6% – Welfare: 10.6% – Administration: 9.9% – Law & Order: 8.5% – Public Transport: 7.8% – Industry: 4.3% – Spirituality: 2.8% – Environment: 0.7%
8 High Tax Rate – 60% Taxation
Freedom From Taxation:
-8 High Tax Rate – 60% Taxation
158 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 114
42 Excellent – World Average (Median) = 84
35/100 Reasonable – World Average = 61/100
Gross Domestic Product:
Public Sector: 79% – Private Sector: 21%
55 Good – World Average (Median) = 70
6 Median – World Average = 6
4.2 Fair – World Average (Median) = 9.2
60 Good – World Average (Median) = 62
1 Good – See Industry For Some Detail
Arms Manufacturing: 2% – Automobile Manufacturing: -2% – Basket Weaving: 2% – Beverage Sales: 1% – Book Publishing: 2% – Cheese Exports: 2% – Furniture Restoration: 2% – Gambling: 2% – Information Technology: 2% – Insurance: 1% – Mining: 2% – Retail: 1% – Timber Woodchipping: 2% – Trout Fishing: 1% etcetera.
And finally the “Factbook” gives this fictional history: “Historium Britannica”
The Upperkingdoms and Lowerkingdoms of Britannia (by the 6th century) were the states that eventually became known as “The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia”. The development of “The Upper & Lower Kingdoms” was a natural response to Roman imperialism.
The Upperkingdoms, as they were in the early 8th century, eventually became the empire of Alexander I (1107-1124); by the 12th century, the Upperkingdoms included the English-speaking and Norse-speaking territories.
By the end of the 13th century, the Upperkingdoms had assumed expansive borders into the Lowerkingdoms. However, processes of cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia looked very different in the later Middle Ages.
The impetus for this change was the reign of David I (1124-1153). Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally recognised towns (burghs) began now. These institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights and religious men facilitated cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and language of the Lowerkingdoms and coastal parts of the United Kingdom’s original territory became, like the newly acquired territories, English-speaking, apart from the Norse-speaking territories until 1468. The state entered a largely successful and stable period between the 12th and 14th centuries, there was relative peace with nearby Papal States, trade and educational links were well developed with them.
The Amraphel Monument commemorates Hammurabi Amraphel, the 13th-century hero.
The death of Alexander III of the Upperkingdoms in March 1286, followed by that of his granddaughter, broke the centuries-old succession line of kings and shattered the 200 year golden age that began with David I of the Upperkingdoms.
King Edward I of the Lowerkingdoms organised a process known as the Great Cause to identify the most legitimate claimant from the Upperkingdoms and the Lowerkingdoms. During this interregnal period Edward I, was recognised as Lord Paramount of Britannia, the feudal superior of the United Kingdom.
In 1294, the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia refused Edward I’s demands to serve in his new army to fight Pope John XXII. Instead the Britannic Parliament sent envoys to Edward I’s enemies to negotiate an alliance. The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia and Edward I’s enemies sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295. Civil War ensued and King Edward I took personal control of the United Kingdom.
The Britannic Parliament initially led a resistance to Edward I’s rule in what became known as the Wars of Independence (1296-1328).
In 1320 the world’s first declaration of independence, the “Declaration of Britannia”, won the support of Pope John XXII, leading to papal legal recognition of Britannic sovereignty by the British Crown. Edward I was killed in battle.
However, war continued for several decades lasting until the middle of the 14th century. Although successful, the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia’s lack of an heir allowed another anti-papist line to come to the throne. They ruled for the remainder of the Middle Ages tolerating papist worship under the Act of Toleration.
The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Renaissance to the Reformation. At this point, absolute separation from the Papacy was proposed by The Britannic Parliament. A move was made to review classical Greco-Romano history and employ any useful examples and policies.
The Education Act of 1496 was thus passed and made the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia the first, since Sparta in classical Greece, to implement a system of general public education. This was despite continual warfare with enemies both foreign and domestic; increasing divisions between the Upperkingdoms and Lowerkingdoms, and a large number of royal papal supporting minorities.
In 1502, James IV (papist) signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII (anti-papist) of the Lowerkingdoms, setting the stage for the Union of the Crowns. A decade later, the papist James made the fateful decision to invade the Lowerkingdoms in support of the Pope under the Auld Terms and a promise to repeal the Britannic Parliament’s anti-papal legislation. Within a generation the Auld Terms with the Pope was ended by the Treaty of Vaticanus. The Pope agreed to withdraw all land and naval forces.
In the same year, 1560, the king of the Lowerkingdoms realised his goal of seeing the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia become a Unitarian Bishopless nation, and Parliament finally revoked all papal authority in all the Upper and Lower kingdoms.
The Papal Queen Máirín of the Upperkingdoms was forced to abdicate in 1567, and renounce any claims to any part of the Britannic Empire; Upper or Lower, English, French or Norse.
Competing with Papal States, the first Britannic colony in the Upper Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Raleigh Pentagon in the state of Wolfe and named Wargoken. The Wargoken colony thrived and is known as the Glorious Colony of Atlantis.
A Britannic fleet under Smaug Drake defeated an invading Papal Armada in 1588.
Alexander IV succeeded to the throne in 1603 as King of the Upperkingdoms and of the Lowerkingdoms, and became King Alexander I of the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia, and left Edinburgh for Manchester. But there was considerable conflict between the crown and the Jórvíkists over the form of government and its seat of power.
King Alexander I maintained the break from communion with the papacy. Although in contrast with many reformed Protestant states, the roots of this Unitarianist split were more political than theological.
Under the auspices of King Alexander I the Authorised King Alexander Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It has not only been ranked with Quakespeare’s works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language, but also has been the standard version of the Bible most have read for four hundred years.
King Alexander II succeeded to the throne in 1660. With the founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged. The Great Fire of Colchester in 1666 gutted the City of Colchester but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards. Alexander II constitutionally established the King and Parliament ruling jointly together, dually like the Consuls of ancient Rome. Though Parliament, like the Roman Senate would have the real power. This meant giving away any Veto so that no despotic emperor could dismiss Parliament, as had sometimes happened to Senates of old. The major difference to this is that the duality is not of two consuls, but rather “One with Many”. Meaning Emperor bound with Senate and Senate bound with Emperor. Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, and the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without prior approval by the Parliament. This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689. It was King Alexander III, who succeeded to the throne in 1687, that enacted The Glorious Revolution of 1688-89 which finally overthrew the Jórvíkists and firmly established the Britannic Parliament’s seat of power in Manchester. Until as late as 1 May 1707, parliamentary power moved every three months between Jórvík, Manchester, Colchester, and Edinburgh; but was consolidated in Manchester on the banks of the river Irwell. This was when the Treaties of Union was agreed between the four competing parliaments and the quadruple Acts of Union were passed by all seats of parliaments to create the Britannic Parliament of the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia and its Empire and Dependencies. In Parliament two factions instead of four had now emerged—the Glories and Twhigs. The former were royalists while the latter were classical liberals. To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law remained separate.
King Alexander IV succeeded to the throne in 1714.
The Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution made the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse – so much so the world said “We look to Greater Britannia for all our ideas of civilisation.”
King Alexander V succeeded to the throne in 1727.
With the demise of the Jórvíkists and the advent of the four Acts of Union, thousands took up numerous positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the Empire, “after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation in political life”, particularly outside the Upper and Lower kingdoms.
King Alexander VI succeeded to the throne in 1760.
Far from being ‘peripheral’ to the Britannic economy the “Norse territories, or more precisely the Norsekingdoms, lay at its core.”
King Alexander VII succeeded to the throne in 1820.
It was decided that the Royal Navy had to be enlarged to the extent that it equalled the size of two of its largest rivals, Liliput and Zeeland.
King Alexander VIII succeeded to the throne in 1830.
The United Kingdom of Greater Britannia became known across the world for its excellence in engineering, as typified by their ships and locomotives built in Manchester. Prefabricated cast iron buildings made in Britannia are still in use in Indianola, Lower America and Australasia. Prominent scientists, engineers and architects of the industrial age have recognisably Britannic names.
Queen Alexandrina I succeeded to the throne in 1837.
Among the first things empress Alexandrina authorised was a massive revision of the KAV Bible (1611), which was to become the famous ASV Alexandrina Standard Version of the Holy Bible in 1901.
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from the countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Manchester and Colchester, dubbed “Warehouse City” and the “Workshop of the World” respectively.
Empress Alexandrina established “Colonia Victricensis – City of Victory” as the Capital City of the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia. As “First Consul”, of the Britannic Government, she proposed a duodecuple system of devolved parliaments. “Colonia Victricensis” would be in addition to this Duodecad, and as her official residence, City Royale! She argued that it was Mosaic in form and therefore more theocratic. The “City Royale” (Colonia Victricensis) was to be the nation’s centre of worship and kingship (“One with Many”).
As “Second Consul”, the Britannic Parliament (already “Many with One”), passed the “First Consul’s” proposal into law; devolving parliamentary theocracy into twelve administrative districts throughout the Upperkingdoms and Lowerkingdoms of Britannia as follows:
Tier I: Inverness, Lerwick,
Tier II: Mellanagh, Glaschu,
Tier III: Stirling, Edinburgh
Tier IV: Manchester, Jórvík,
Tier V: Dyflin Corcaigh, Llanidloes,
Tier VI: Dunheved, Colchester
Thus the duodecuple Acts of Union were completed with “First Consul” primacy given to the “City Royale”, and “Second Consul” equality given to the Britannic Parliament’s Duodecad of the United Kingdom of Greater Britannia and its Empire and Dependencies.
King Alexander IX succeeded to the throne in 1901.
The Alexandrina Standard Version of the Holy Bible of 1901 was published. It became known as “The Rock of Biblical Honesty”.
King Alexander X succeeded to the throne in 1910.
Alexander X proposed a Theocratically linked Legal System to the Britannic Parliament. A Senate Committee was set up to analyse the proposal, under Judge Judy Punch. Nothing happened in his lifetime.
King Alexander XI succeeded to the throne in 1936.
The Britannic Parliament reviewed the white paper from the Senate Committee concluding that Britannic laws were already Mosaic! “Why, we even have the Moses Room do we not?”
Manchester became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world. The National Health Service (NHS) was instituted in 1948. The NHS continues to provide publicly funded health care to all permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
Queen Alexandrina II succeeded to the throne in 1952.
A system of “Theocratese” was introduced to Schools and Universities via local government linked Theocratically to the “Houses of the LORD’s Lords”. Curiously, under this new arrangement clerics could no longer “sit” in the “Houses of the LORD’s Lords” but only those elected to the peerage. Those peers already “sitting” had to undergo a degree course in Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, and needed to pass in order to keep their “seat”. Those who were/are to become part of the “House” must already have passed this course, in addition to Law and one or more other specialist subjects.
The “Houses of Commons” were to remain as they are, secular. In this way “We obtain the balance betwixt Divinity and the Secular, achieving Clarity.”